Saturday, June 29, 2013

[2-102] Solid Inanimate Objects possess a certain Degree of Awareness

Solid Inanimate Objects possess a certain Degree of Awareness


Some claimed that the Ayat mentioned the stones being humble as a metaphor. However, Ar-Razi, Al-Qurtubi and other Imams said that there is no need for this explanation, because Allah creates this characteristic - humbleness - in stones. For instance, Allah said,

[إِنَّا عَرَضْنَا الاٌّمَانَةَ عَلَى السَّمَـوَتِ وَالاٌّرْضِ وَالْجِبَالِ فَأبَيْنَ أَن يَحْمِلْنَهَا وَأَشْفَقْنَ مِنْهَا]

(Truly, We did offer Al-Amanah (the trust) to the heavens and the earth, and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it (i.e. afraid of Allah's torment)) (33:72),

[تُسَبِّحُ لَهُ السَّمَـوَتُ السَّبْعُ وَالاٌّرْضُ وَمَن فِيهِنَّ]

(The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him) (17:44),

[وَالنَّجْمُ وَالشَّجَرُ يَسْجُدَانِ ]

(And the stars and the trees both prostrate themselves (to Allah)) (55:6),

[أَوَ لَمْيَرَوْاْ إِلَىخَلَقَ اللَّهُ مِن شَىْءٍ يَتَفَيَّأُ]

(Have they not observed things that Allah has created: (how) their shadows incline) (16:48),

[قَالَتَآ أَتَيْنَا طَآئِعِينَ]

(They both said: "We come willingly.'') (41:11),

[لَوْ أَنزَلْنَا هَـذَا الْقُرْءَانَ عَلَى جَبَلٍ]

(Had We sent down this Qur'an on a mountain) (59:21), and,

[وَقَالُواْ لِجُلُودِهِمْ لِمَ شَهِدتُّمْ عَلَيْنَا قَالُواْ أَنطَقَنَا اللَّهُ]

(And they will say to their skins, "Why do you testify against us'' They will say: "Allah has caused us to speak.'') (41:21).

It is recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet said,

«هذَا جَبَلٌ يُحِبُّنَا وَنُحِبُّه»

(This (Mount Uhud) is a mount that loves us and that we love.)

Similarly, the compassion of the stump of the palm tree for the Prophet as confirmed in authentic narrations. In Sahih Muslim it is recorded that the Prophet said,

«إِنِّي لَأَعْرِفُ حَجَرًا بِمَكَّةَ كَانَ يُسَلِّمُ عَلَيَّ قَبْلَ أَنْ أُبْعَثَ إِنِّي لَأَعْرِفُهُ الْآن»

(I know a stone in Makkah that used to greet me with the Salam before I was sent. I recognize this stone now.)

He said about the Black Stone that,

«إِنَّهُ يَشْهَدُ لِمَنِ اسْتَلَمَ بِحَقَ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَة»

(On the Day of Resurrection it will testifiy for those who kiss it.)

There are several other texts with this meaning. The scholars of the Arabic language disagreed over the meaning of Allah's statement,

[فَهِىَ كَالْحِجَارَةِ أَوْ أَشَدُّ قَسْوَةً]

(And became as stones or even worse in hardness) after agreeing that `or' here is not being used to reflect doubt. Some scholars said that `or' here means, `and'. So the meaning becomes, "As hard as stones, and harder.'' For instance, Allah said,

[وَلاَ تُطِعْ مِنْهُمْ ءَاثِماً أَوْ كَفُوراً]

(And obey not a sinner or a disbeliever among them) (76:24), and,

[عُذْراً أَوْ نُذْراً ]

(To cut off all excuses or to warn) (77:6).

Some other scholars said that `or' here means, `rather'. Hence, the meaning becomes, `As hard as stones. Rather, harder.' For instance, Allah said,

[إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَخْشَوْنَ النَّاسَ كَخَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ أَوْ أَشَدَّ خَشْيَةً]

(A section of them fear men as they fear Allah or even more) (4:77),

[وَأَرْسَلْنَـهُ إِلَى مِاْئَةِ أَلْفٍ أَوْ يَزِيدُونَ ]

(And We sent him to a hundred thousand (people) or even more) (37:147), and,

[فَكَانَ قَابَ قَوْسَيْنِ أَوْ أَدْنَى ]

(And was at a distance of two bows' length or (even) nearer) (53:9).

Some other scholars said that this Ayah means their hearts are only of two types, as hard as stone or harder than stone. Further, Ibn Jarir commented that this Tafsir means that some of their hearts are as hard as stone and some hearts are harder than stone. Ibn Jarir said that he favored this last Tafsir, although the others are plausible. I - Ibn Kathir - say that the last Tafsir is similar to Allah's statement,

[مَثَلُهُمْ كَمَثَلِ الَّذِى اسْتَوْقَدَ نَاراً]

(Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindled a fire) (2:17), and then His statement,

[أَوْ كَصَيِّبٍ مِّنَ السَّمَآءِ]

(Or like a rainstorm from the sky) (2:19).

It is also similar to Allah's statement,

[وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ أَعْمَـلُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ]

(As for those who disbelieved, their deeds are like a mirage in a desert) (24:39), and then His statement,

[أَوْ كَظُلُمَـتٍ فِى بَحْرٍ لُّجِّىٍّ]

(Or (the state of a disbeliever) is like the darkness in a vast deep sea) (24:40).

This then means that some of them are like the first example, and some others are like the second example. Allah knows best.

[أَفَتَطْمَعُونَ أَن يُؤْمِنُواْ لَكُمْ وَقَدْ كَانَ فَرِيقٌ مِّنْهُمْ يَسْمَعُونَ كَلَـمَ اللَّهِ ثُمَّ يُحَرِّفُونَهُ مِن بَعْدِ مَا عَقَلُوهُ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ - وَإِذَا لَقُواْ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ قَالُواْ ءَامَنَّا وَإِذَا خَلاَ بَعْضُهُمْ إِلَى بَعْضٍ قَالُواْ أَتُحَدِّثُونَهُم بِمَا فَتَحَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْكُمْ لِيُحَآجُّوكُم بِهِ عِندَ رَبِّكُمْ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ - أَوَلاَ يَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يَعْلَمُ مَا يُسِرُّونَ وَمَا يُعْلِنُونَ ]

(75. Do you (faithful believers) covet that they will believe in your religion inspite of the fact that a party of them (Jewish rabbis) used to hear the Word of Allah (the Tawrah), then they used to change it knowingly after they understood it) (76. And when they (Jews) meet those who believe (Muslims), they say, "We believe,'' but when they meet one another in private, they say, "Shall you (Jews) tell them (Muslims) what Allah has revealed to you that they (Muslims) may argue with you (Jews) about it before your Lord'' Have you (Jews) then no understanding) (77. Know they (Jews) not that Allah knows what they conceal and what they reveal)

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