Ibn Az-Zubayr rebuilds Al-Ka`bah the way the Prophet wished
Ibn Ishaq said, "During the time of the Prophet , the Ka`bah was eighteen cubits high and was covered with Egyptian linen, and they with a striped garment. Al-Hajjaj bin Yusuf was the first person to cover it with silk.'' The Ka`bah remained the same way the Quraysh rebuilt it, until it was burned during the reign of `Abdullah bin Az-Zubayr, after the year 6o H, at the end of the reign of Yazل0d bin Mu`awiyah. During that time, Ibn Az-Zubayr was besieged at Makkah. When it was burned, Ibn Az-Zubayr brought the Ka`bah down and built it upon the foundations of Ibrahim, including the Hijr in it. He also made an eastern door and a western door in the Ka`bah and placed them on ground level. He had heard his aunt `A'ishah, the Mother of the believers, narrate that the Messenger of Allah had wished that. The Ka`bah remained like this throughout his reign, until Al-Hajjaj killed Ibn Az-Zubayr and then rebuilt it the way it was before, by the order of `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan.
Muslim recorded that `Ata' said, "The House was burnt during the reign of Yazid bin Mu`awiyah, when the people of Ash-Sham raided Makkah. Ibn Az-Zubayr did not touch the House until the people came for Hajj, for he wanted to incite them against the people of Ash-Sham. He said to them, `O people! Advise me regarding the Ka`bah, should we bring it down and rebuild it, or just repair the damage it sustained' Ibn `Abbas said, `I have an opinion about this. You should rebuild the House the way it was when the people became Muslims. You should leave the stones that existed when the people became Muslims and when the Prophet was sent. ' Ibn Az-Zubayr said, `If the house of one of them gets burned, he will not be satisfied, until he rebuilds it. How about Allah's House I will invoke my Lord for three days and will then implement what I decide.' When the three days had passed, he decided to bring the Ka`bah down. The people hesitated to bring it down, fearing that the first person to climb on the House would be struck down. A man went on top of the House and threw some stones down, and when the people saw that no harm touched him, they started doing the same. They brought the House down to ground level. Ibn Az-Zubayr surrounded the site with curtains hanging from pillars, so that the House would be covered, until the building was erect. Ibn Az-Zubayr then said, `I heard `A'ishah say that the Messenger of Allah said,
«لَوْلَا أَنَّ النَّاسَ حَدِيثٌ عَهْدُهُمْ بِكُفْرٍ، وَلَيْسَ عِنْدِي مِنَ النَّفَقَةِ مَا يُقَوِّينِي عَلى بِنَائِهِ لَكُنْتُ أَدْخَلْتُ فِيهِ مِنَ الْحِجْرِ خَمْسَةَ أَذْرُعٍ، وَلَجَعَلْتُ لَهُ بَابًا يَدْخُلُ النَّاسُ مِنْهُ وَبَابًا يَخْرُجُونَ مِنْه»
(If it was not for the fact that the people have recently abandoned disbelief, and that I do not have enough money to spend on it, I would have included in the House five cubits from Al-Hijr and would have made a door for it that people could enter from, and another door that they could exit from.)
Ibn Az-Zubayr said, `I can spend on this job, and I do not fear the people.' So he added five cubits from the Hijr, which looked like a rear part for the House that people could clearly see. He then built the House and made it eighteen cubits high. He thought that the House was still short and added ten cubits in the front and built two doors in it, one as an entrance and another as an exit.
When Ibn Az-Zubayr was killed, Al-Hajjaj wrote to `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan asking him about the House and told him that Ibn Az-Zubayr made a rear section for the House. `Abdul-Malik wrote back, `We do not agree with Ibn Az-Zubayr's actions. As, for the Ka`bah's height, leave it as it is. As for what he added from the Hijr, bring it down, and build the House as it was before and close the door.' Therefore, Al-Hajjaj brought down the House and rebuilt it as it was.'' In his Sunan, An-Nasa'i collected the Hadith of the Prophet narrated from `A'ishah, not the whole story,
The correct Sunnah conformed to Ibn Az-Zubayr's actions, because this was what the Prophet wished he could do, but feared that the hearts of the people who recently became Muslim could not bear rebuilding the House. This Sunnah was not clear to `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan. Hence, when `Abdul-Malik realized that `A'ishah had narrated the Hadith of the Messenger of Allah on this subject, he said, "I wish we had left it as Ibn Az-Zubayr had made it.'' Muslim recorded that `Ubadydullah bin `Ubayd said that Al-Harith bin `Abdullah came to `Abdul-Malik bin Marwan during his reign. `Abdul-Malik said, `I did not think that Abu Khubayb (Ibn Az-Zubayr) heard from `A'ishah what he said he heard from her.' Al-Harith said, `Yes he did. I heard the Hadith from her.' `Abdul-Malik said, `You heard her say what' He said, `She said that the Messenger of Allah said,
«إِنَّ قَوْمَكِ اسْتَقْصَرُوا مِنْ بُنْيَانِ الْبَيْتِ وَلَوْلَا حَدَاثَةُ عَهْدِهِمْ بِالشِّرْكِ أَعَدْتُ مَا تَرَكُوا مِنْهُ، فَإِنْ بَدَا لِقَوْمِكِ مِنْ بَعْدِي أَنْ يَبْنُوهُ فَهَلُمِّي لِأُرِيَكِ مَا تَرَكُوهُ مِنْه»
(Your people rebuilt the House smaller. Had it not been for the fact that your people are not far from the time of Shirk, I would add what was left outside of it. If your people afterwards think about rebuilding it, let me show you what they left out of it.) He showed her around seven cubits.'
One of the narrators of the Hadith, Al-Walid bin `Ata', added that the Prophet said,
«وَلَجَعَلْتُ لَهَا بَابَيْنِ مَوْضُوعَيْنِ فِي الْأَرْضِ: شَرْقِيًّا وَغَرْبِيًّا، وَهَلْ تَدرِينَ لِمَ كَانَ قَومُكِ رَفَعُوا بَابَهَا؟»
قَالَتْ: قُلْتُ: لَا. قَالَ:
«تَعَزُّزًا أَنْ لَا يَدْخُلَهَا إِلَّا مَنْ أَرَادُوا، فَكَانَ الرَّجُلُ إِذَا هُوَ أَرَادَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَهَا يَدَعُونَهُ يَرْتَقِي حَتَّى إِذَا كَادَ أَنْ يَدْخُلَ دَفَعُوهُ فَسَقَط»
(I would have made two doors for the House on ground level, one eastern and one western. Do you know why your people raised its door above ground level) She said, `No.' He said, (To allow only those whom they wanted to enter it. When a man whom they did not wish to enter the House climbed to the level of the door, they would push him down)
`Abdul-Malik then said, `You heard `A'ishah say this Hadith' He said, `Yes.' `Abdul-Malik said, `I wish I left it as it was.''